As a rule, cleanrooms are necessary at modern factories and in medical institutions. Cleanrooms prevent nosocomial infection and postoperative complications in patients.
Cleanrooms are especially important in surgical and emergency units, intensive care units and specialized wards (like allergy, oncohematology), delivery rooms, PCR-laboratories and laboratories of cell therapy, diploid cells and stem cells.
Designing cleanrooms specialists need to stick to the All-Union State Standard (GOST) R 52539-2006 “Air cleanliness in hospitals.”
Surgical unit is a cleanroom for performing surgeries of different specialization. The requirements for the air cleanliness in surgical units directly depends on the type of surgeries performed there. The main parameter considered is the number of viable microorganisms and certain mechanical particles of certain size per unit volume of air.
The design should take into account: the specialization of surgical units; the area covered by a laminar flow, thus it is necessary to know exactly where the surgical table and the instrument table are going to be placed, as well as the location of fixtures and equipment supporting the life of the patient and the location of the unit in the general layout of surgery block in general in order to take into account the movement of air flows.
It is important to create a local zone of high air cleanliness near the surgical table to provide the encapsulation with sterile air-conditioned air.
We use the whole range of measures aimed at supporting air cleanliness, eliminating appearance, accumulation and retention of microbial or mechanical particles. It helps to reduce the level of nosocomial infections and, consequently, the number of postoperative complications.
Resuscitation wards and ICUs
In resuscitation and intensive care wards using cleanrooms protects patients from infections and germs. As a rule, air cleanliness is ensured by applying the principle of dilution and removal of aerosol particles by weakly turbulent air flows, as well as by maintaining a positive pressure in the room.
Oncohematology and allergy units
Usually specialized units (like oncohematology or allergy) are equipped with additional local zones with high air cleanliness. Unidirectional air flow is adjusted so that the zone included the patient’s bed. This allows achieving the effect of air encapsulation to protect the patient from aerosol pollution brought by visitors and medical staff.
In medical facilities such units are necessary to enhance the effect of treatment and intensive care for patients after the bone marrow transplantation, as well as for patients with diseases of the immune system and hematopoiesis.
In maternity hospitals and perinatal centers cleanrooms are an effective way to reduce maternal and child mortality from puerperal septic diseases, severe pregnancy toxemia, premature delivery and infection of newborns.
PCR – Laboratories
PCR – laboratory should be designed based on the principles of rational zoning and effectively operating system of independent ventilation. Due to that the research work quality is improved, starting from diagnosing sexually transmitted diseases to the molecular-genetic research. PCR-diagnosis implies high sensitivity to contamination of the laboratory space, equipment and reagents nucleic acids, amplification products, and microorganisms that may be present in the air and distort the laboratory test results.
Cleanrooms help not only to avoid this, but also to protect laboratory personnel.